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How to Find and Prepare Driftwood for Your Aquarium

Lindsey Stanton Profile Picture

By Lindsey Stanton

tropical-fish-jungle-driftwood_you-sheng_shutterstock

Part of the fun of keeping an aquarium is creating an attractive and enriching environment for your fish. Driftwood is a popular aquarium decoration, as it looks great and can help create a natural type environment for your aquatic creatures.

The problem with sourcing it is that it can be fairly expensive and it may also be a challenge to find a piece in a store that’s the right shape and size for your tank. With so much driftwood to be found just lying on beaches and riverbanks, many fish keepers wonder if it’s safe to collect their own.

The good news is, yes, it’s okay to use some driftwood that you’ve found yourself. The bad news is it requires quite a lot of cleaning and preparation to make it safe to use. This article will tell you all you need to know about safely adding your own driftwood to an aquarium.

What is Driftwood?

It is a generic term for basically any wood that has been in a body of water and washed up on a beach, shore, or bank. It’s generally gray, gnarled, and weathered-looking, which is what makes it a popular aquarium decoration.

It’s also more suitable for use in a fish tank than freshly cut wood as more of the tannins have leached out during its time in the water, so it takes less time to prepare.

driftwood beach large sunny
Image Credit: Pixabay

Why Add it to Your Aquarium?

While many people assume the only reason to put it in an aquarium is for aesthetic reasons, there are several benefits to having it in your tank. Sure, it does look great, but it’s also an excellent place for fish and any other aquatic creatures to hide.

A bare aquarium is a pretty bleak place for fish to live. They like to be able to tuck away somewhere a bit more sheltered if they feel insecure. And it’s also nice for them to have more places to explore for enrichment. If you have any algae-eating critters in your tank, driftwood can also be a place for them to find food.

In larger tanks, colonies of good bacteria can populate, which helps to maintain a cleaner and healthier environment. Driftwood is the perfect place for these good bacteria to make their home. The tannins leaching from driftwood naturally lowers the pH of the water. Although this isn’t a benefit for everyone, many fish keepers have to add chemicals to the water to artificially lower the pH.

So, if you find that your tank’s pH is regularly too high, driftwood could help solve this problem.

driftwood holes
Image Credit: Pixabay

What Kinds of Driftwood are Safe to Use?

If you’re going to be collecting your own, you need to know which types of wood are suitable and which aren’t. Hardwoods are fine to use, but avoid softwoods. Softwoods generally contain a large amount of sap or resin. This can leach out of the wood into the water and cause problems in your tank.

Trees such as pine and other evergreens are softwoods, so a good rule of thumb is to avoid wood from any trees that don’t shed their leaves or that bear cones. The problem is, when you find washed-up driftwood, it might be hard to tell what tree it came from. But, here’s a tip: If you can dig your fingernail into a piece of wood, it’s probably softwood. If you can’t, it’s hardwood.

Some types of driftwood are particularly prized over others for aquarium use. Manzanita is good because it naturally contains fewer tannins, which can discolor the water. African or Malaysian driftwood and African or Savanna root are also popular because they’re self-sinking and don’t need to be weighed down.

However, if you’re using pieces you’ve found yourself, you’re not going to find these varieties unless you happen to live in Africa or Malaysia.

According to INJAF:

The following woods are unsafe for aquarium use:
  • Cedar
  • Cypress
  • Grape Vine
  • Horse chestnut
  • Lilac
  • Ivy
  • Pine
  • Spruce
  • Walnut
  • Yew

Some of these are toxic, some of them rot too quickly and others excrete sap or other unwanted substances.

3 pieces of driftwood
Image Credit: Pixabay

Is Driftwood Safe for Both Salt Water and Freshwater Tanks?

There’s some dispute about whether it’s wise to use it in saltwater aquariums at all. As mentioned above, the tannins that leach from it lower the pH of your water. In freshwater aquariums, this doesn’t often cause much of an issue, but the same can’t be said for marine aquariums.

Many people who have saltwater aquariums struggle to keep the pH of their water high enough at the best of times. So, if you factor in another thing that’s lowering the pH in their tank, this could spell disaster. That said, if you have no problem maintaining the pH in your marine tank, this shouldn’t be an issue.

In terms of types of wood, there aren’t any varieties that should be avoided in a saltwater tank but not a freshwater tank or vice-versa. If a type of wood is fine for one, then it’s fine for the other, too. Be careful if using driftwood from the sea in a freshwater aquarium. There can be salt and sand deeply ingrained in the wood, and you don’t want to introduce salt into a freshwater tank for obvious reasons.

If you boil and soak your wood for long enough, it should be okay in a freshwater tank. But, we’d suggest erring on the side of caution and only using that from freshwater environments in freshwater tanks.

Can You Put Found Driftwood in an Aquarium?

Now we get to the crux of the issue: yes, it is possible to put found driftwood in your fish tank, but it’s not as simple as just collecting it and throwing it right in. If you don’t properly prepare the wood before putting it in your tank, you could introduce all kinds of harmful bacteria and other nasties which could ultimately kill your fish.

The wood must be fully cleaned and sterilized – a process that we’ll explain fully later in this article. If you’re unsure the wood is suitable, or you don’t know whether you’ve cleaned it properly, don’t take the risk. It’s better to shell out for aquarium-safe driftwood from the pet store than to risk the lives of your fish.

driftwood night log
Image Credit: Pixabay

What Common Problems Might Occur Using Found Driftwood?

Not everyone feels comfortable using found driftwood because problems can occur. The ecosystem in an aquarium is fairly fragile, so introducing unwanted organisms, chemicals, and other pollutants can be extremely harmful.

Let’s go over some of the common issues that can happen when using pieces you found if it isn’t prepared properly.

1. Bacteria

This is probably your main concern. If a piece of wood has been floating around in a river or ocean for several years, it’s going to have picked up some bacteria.

There is such a thing as good bacteria, but a lot of bacteria is also harmful. Since you have no way of knowing what kinds of bacteria are on a piece of found driftwood (bar complex lab tests), you’re best off assuming the worst.

If you just place a bit of driftwood in your aquarium without making sure it’s properly cleaned and sterilized first, it’s likely to wreak havoc on the natural ecosystem of the tank.

This could make your fish unwell, or even kill them.


2. Hitchhikers

We’re not suggesting that something literally thumbed a ride from a piece of driftwood, but there are all sorts of critters that might live in a bit of old wood.

If you collect pieces from the shore, there are likely some creepy-crawlies living in there, especially if it has been washed up for some time.

Even if you collect it straight out of the water, there may be some aquatic creatures that have made it their home.

driftwood starfish white background
Image Credit: Pixabay

3. Pollutants

Some woods can be treated with chemicals, so if it looks like a piece of wood that was used for something else before and then discarded, avoid it.

If it looks like a natural piece of wood, however, it should be fine.

One thing to think about is where you’re collecting the driftwood from. If it comes from a body of water you know to be polluted, it would be unwise to use it.


4. Tannins

Tannins are compounds found naturally in all wood. While there’s nothing inherently harmful about them, they leach out into the water and discolor it, giving it a kind of tea-stained look.

Since this replicates the appearance of Amazonian blackwater habitats, some fishkeepers actually enjoy the effect, especially in tanks containing brightly colored tetras.

If a piece of driftwood has been in the water for some time, most of the tannins may have already leached out. Otherwise, a lengthy curing process is necessary before it can be used in your tank.

How to Prepare Driftwood for Aquarium Use

The moment of truth is here. We’ve told you how important it is to properly prepare aquarium driftwood, and now we’re going to tell you how to do it. It’s a fairly simple process, but it must be done to the letter or you risk endangering your tank’s inhabitants.

We’ve got two easy preparation methods for you below:

large planted aquarium with driftwood and colorful fish
Image: you sheng, Shutterstock
Preparation Option #1:
  1. Examine: When choosing a piece of driftwood for your aquarium, thoroughly examine the wood for any obvious signs of parasites or fungi. Also, verify that the wood is not treated with chemical agents and is aquarium safe. Examples of good wood for aquariums are spider wood, manzanita, cholla, bonsai, and mangrove roots.
  2. Scrub: Use a clean brush to dry brush the wood. This will remove clumps of dirt and allow you to examine the wood more thoroughly. After this, use the brush and clean water to scrub the wood to remove any chemical agents that may have gotten onto the wood as well as dirt, fungal spores, and parasites. It’s important to make sure you are using a clean brush that has not been used for other purposes before. A toothbrush is a good option for this job, but it should be one that has not been previously used. If you use a cleaning scrub brush, make sure it is not one you have ever used with soap or cleaning chemicals before. Also make sure to use a clean bucket for the water. The bucket you use for your aquarium water changes will suffice. You just need to ensure you are not using a bucket that has had cleaning chemicals in it.
  3. Soak: Most driftwood will still be buoyant upon purchase, which means it will float when you attempt to settle it into your tank. To prevent this, you will need to soak the wood in a clean bucket of water. It may take multiple days of soaking to saturate the wood enough to make it sink. Change the water out every day or two to ensure it does not begin to stagnate or attract pests like mosquitos.
  4. Examine: Once saturated, check over the wood one more time. Make sure to remove or sand sharp edges or pieces that may cause injury to your fish.
  5. Place: Place the driftwood in your aquarium wherever you want to see it live. If the wood still floats, then repeat step 3 again.

aquarium-tank-with-a-variety-of-aquatic-plants-driftwood_BLUR-LIFE-1975_shutterstock
Credit: BLUR LIFE 1975, Shutterstock
Preparation Option #2:
  1. Examine: Thoroughly check the wood over for parasites, sharp edges, fungi, and other obvious issues.
  2. Quick Scrub: Use a clean brush to scrub the wood with clean water. This does not have to be a thorough scrubbing, just enough to remove dirt and fungal spores and get a better look at the wood.
  3. Boil: Boil the driftwood until it is thoroughly saturated with water. This will keep the wood from floating when you attempt to put it into your tank. Depending on the size of the piece of wood and the type of wood, you may only need to boil it for 30 minutes or you may need to boil it for multiple hours. Keep a close eye on the wood while it is boiling to ensure the water level stays up. Top the water off as needed. Carefully monitor the wood to prevent a fire or scorching of the wood. Boiling will help kill off any spores, parasites, or bacteria that may be present on or in the wood, including things that are not visible.
  4. Cool: Allow the wood to thoroughly cool before you attempt to handle it. Running it under cool water or placing it in an ice bath will help it cool faster. It’s important to make sure the wood is not much warmer than your tank water’s temperature before you add it to the tank.
  5. Examine: Once you are satisfied with the boiling and cooling of the wood, examine the wood again. Check for any loose or splintering areas of wood that the boiling may have uncovered. Remove or sand these areas until smooth.
  6. Place: Put the wood into your aquarium wherever you want it to sit. If it still tries to float, then repeat steps 3 and 4 again.

aquarium plant divider

Cleaning

You’ll need to thoroughly clean the exterior. Get yourself a stiff-bristled brush – such as a vegetable brush or a nail brush – and scrub every inch of your piece of driftwood. Only use hot water, never any soap, detergent, or other cleaning products. These can be extremely harmful to your fish and should always be avoided.

If there’s any bark left on, it’s best to remove it, as this is a prime location for insects to hide. You should also sand down any sharp edges that could harm your fish. Cleaning it in this way will get off any superficial dirt, but there’s still more to be done before it’s safe to go in your tank.

driftwood dry dried
Image Credit: Pixabay

Sterilizing – Boil Driftwood for Your Aquarium

It’s imperative you properly sterilize your piece of aquarium driftwood before you even consider putting it into your aquarium. It’s during this process that you’ll get rid of the majority of bacteria, so it’s not optional.

First, you’ll need to find a pan big enough to fully submerge your wood. This might be tricky if you have a particularly big piece of wood, but you can find large stock pots which should be of sufficient size to fit most pieces.

Boil it for at least 2 hours. If you have a particularly large or thick piece, you might want to increase this by an extra hour or so. You need the wood to heat all the way through to the middle or else it won’t be fully sterilized. If you can’t find a pot big enough for your piece of driftwood, just go and find a smaller piece.

Some people recommend cleaning it with a weak bleach solution, but we think this is too risky. If you don’t fully rinse the bleach out, this could kill your fish. Plus, the bleach would only clean the exterior, meaning there could still be harmful bacteria deep inside.

How to Cure Driftwood for Aquarium Use

This is the final step to go through before your driftwood is ready to use in your tank. The main point of the curing process is to leach out the majority of the tannins in the wood so it doesn’t discolor the water or lower its pH levels too sharply.

However, it also helps to saturate the wood so that it will sink on its own in the tank and won’t need to be anchored. That said, some will never sink naturally, no matter how long it’s been in the water.

Curing your wood is easy, but time-consuming. Although it is quite a hands-off job. All you need to do is submerge your aquarium driftwood in a container of water and leave it in there for 1 to 2 weeks.

Keep an eye on the water, and once it becomes darkened by the tannins, empty it and replace it with fresh. Keep doing this until the water stops becoming significantly darkened by the tannins.

Once you’re happy with the amount of darkening – or lack thereof – the wood is ready to be placed in your aquarium.

driftwood
Image Credit: Buntysmum, Pixabay

Dos and Don’ts

If you find yourself with any questions or issues related to using your own driftwood in your aquarium, these quick dos and don’ts might help you out.

Do
  • Plan out where you’re going to put your driftwood before you get started. Putting it in an awkward place or having to move it around could stress your fish.
  • Remove any bark, moss, or lichens
  • Cure your driftwood until tannins stop discoloring the water (unless you want this to happen).
  • Use a filter containing activated carbon or a chemical filter such as Purigen to help clarify your water if tannins are discoloring it
Don't
  • Select a piece of softwood to go in your aquarium.
  • Collect driftwood from a body of water that’s polluted.
  • Use any cleaning products, soap, or detergent when cleaning.
  • Skip the sterilizing step
  • Forget that driftwood can lower the pH in your tank and you need to check levels accordingly.

Conclusion

If you enjoy a good project or just want a really specific size or shape of wood that you can’t find in a store, finding your own might be right for you. Just remember to always err on the side of caution and be sure to fully clean, sterilize and cure your aquarium driftwood so you don’t mess up the conditions in your tank and harm your fish.

Properly preparing your own driftwood is a fairly lengthy process, so if you’re not fully invested in it as a project, it might not be worth your time. If you’re just doing it to avoid spending a few bucks, you’re probably better off just saving up and buying some aquarium-safe driftwood when you can afford it.

Happy fish keeping!


Featured Image Credit: you sheng, Shutterstock

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