Felines are pretty amazing because, unlike dogs, we don’t have to potty train them; they just know to use the litter box. Cats are wired to want to cover up their waste, so the litter box is the obvious place to go to the bathroom. But what if your cat is suddenly not using the litter box and is, instead, peeing outside it? Why would your pet do that?
There are many possible reasons your cat is peeing outside the litter box. Some of these reasons are easily fixed, and others will require a visit to the vet and possibly a behaviorist. But once you’ve figured out which reason applies to your kitty, you can work towards fixing the problem.
If your cat is suddenly urinating outside the litter box and is showing any signs of illness such as passing small amounts of urine frequently, blood in the urine, pain or lethargy you should contact your veterinary clinic straight away for an appointment.
The 9 Possible Reasons Your Cat is Peeing Outside the Litter Box
1. Dislikes the Current Litter
One of the more common reasons cats begin peeing outside the litter box is they aren’t big fans of whichever litter you’re giving them. You might love the litter you’ve been using because it clumps better or cleans easier, but that doesn’t mean kitty enjoys it. Your cat might hate how the litter feels on their paws or dislike how it smells; there are plenty of reasons your pet might hate the current litter. Cats can have very strong texture preferences when it comes to cat litter. If you have recently changed litter or have just rehomed a cat and they won’t use the litter box, this could be a reason why. But if this is why your pet is urinating outside the litter box, it’s an easy fix—just switch to a new litter! You may go through a few types in your quest to find what your cat likes best, but once you have it, kitty should start using the litter box again.
2. Has a Different Issue With the Litter Box
Your kitty could have an issue with the litter box that has nothing to do with litter. Felines are particular about things, so a problem with an aspect of the litter box isn’t uncommon. It could be that the box is too big or too small, open sided or closed. Or perhaps the location of the litter box isn’t working for the kitty. Maybe the sides of the litter box are too high to be stepped over. Or it could even be that the litter box isn’t getting cleaned often or well enough. Litter boxes should be positioned in a quiet area of the house away from electrical appliances, through traffic and away from food and water bowls. So many litter box reasons would lead your pet to urinate outside the box.
3. Doesn’t Like Sharing the Litter Box
Do you have more than one feline in your home? Then you need more than one litter box. If you have multiple cats but only a single litter box, your cat might be peeing outside the box because it doesn’t like sharing with the others. It could be feeling bullied by the other kitties or just be in a dispute with one of the others. Either way, the end result is your pet not wanting to use the litter box. You can fix the situation by having a litter box per feline in your home and one extra, each placed in different areas. Cleaning out multiple litter boxes makes more work for you, but it sure beats eliminating urine stains and odors elsewhere!
4. Doesn’t Feel Safe
Occasionally, our kitties simply don’t feel safe using the litter box. Why is that? Well, it could be because of the bullying mentioned above. Some felines just get nervous when in the litter box, and if another cat is pushing them around (or even staring at them), it could be enough for the cat to not use it. When going to the toilet cats are more vulnerable than usual as they cannot get away. It might not even be another cat that’s making it so nervous while in the litter box—there might also be a dog, electrical appliance or even a child’s presence unsettling them while they’re in there.
And sometimes our cats don’t feel safe because the litter box is too low to the ground. This makes them seek out a higher area to toilet in such as plant pots, so they can see any threats that may be approaching. It sounds odd because what sort of threats would be in your home? Well, your pet could feel threatened by a rambunctious child, another animal, or even an appliance near the litter box that sounds frightening to them.
Again, multiple litter boxes for multiple cats can help, as can placing the litter box in a higher area that feels safer for your pet.
5. Being Territorial
Have you adopted a new animal recently? If so, your cat might be urinating outside the litter box to mark what they consider their territory. Usually this is differentiated as spraying urine rather than regular urination. If this is happening with your kitty, you can look to using cat pheromone products and speak to your veterinarian for advice. One thing you can try, though, is adding more territory to the home that’s just for kitty. How can you do that? By adding vertical territory in the form of scratching posts or cat trees and making sure that the cats don’t need to share resources such as food bowls and beds.
6. Suffering From Separation Anxiety
Felines may come off as solitary and aloof at times, but they’re actually pretty social and can form close bonds with their families. If you and your kitty are close, it makes sense that they may get a bit anxious when you leave the house for extended periods (like when you go to work). And that anxiety over being separated can result in your cat peeing outside the litter box.
You can help your kitty with their separation anxiety by making and sticking to a daily routine, as well as ensuring your cat has plenty of mental stimulation while you’re away from the house. A consultation with a feline accredited behaviorist may be needed too.
7. Feeling Stressed
It isn’t just separation anxiety that can leave kitty feeling stressed, though. Our feline friends are big fans of routine, and if that routine is interrupted for any reason, it can make them incredibly stressed out, which could lead to inappropriate elimination. It can be difficult to pinpoint whether stress is the culprit behind your cat urinating outside the litter box, but look around and see if there have been any disruptions or changes lately. Perhaps you’ve recently moved, a new baby has joined the household or your neighbor has a new cat. These can all be stressors for your kitty.
Unfortunately, stress isn’t as easy to remedy as other reasons. This is another time when discussing the situation with your veterinarian is important so they can help.
8. Medical Problems
Unfortunately, sometimes when a cat urinates outside the litter box, it’s due to a medical problem. If everything has been hunky dory up till now and there haven’t been changes to kitty’s routine that could be stressing it out, then you should check and see if there’s a medical problem. There are several that can result in urination outside the litter box, such as feline lower urinary tract disease, bladder stones, and arthritis. If you think this could be causing the issue, take your cat to the vet to find out if anything is going on.
9. Cognitive Dysfunction
Finally, if you have a senior feline, then your pet might be suffering from cognitive dysfunction. Much like humans, cats can be susceptible to age-related diseases like cognitive dysfunction, which can lead to several behavioral issues, including peeing outside the litter box. If this is why your pet is eliminating inappropriately, you’ll also see other signs, such as sleeping more, little interest in playing, staring blankly at walls, and loud vocalizations in the middle of the night.
There’s no cure for cognitive dysfunction, but there are treatments, so speak with your vet about your options if you believe this is the issue.
If your cat has begun peeing outside the litter box, there are many possible reasons. Many require fairly easy fixes that should eliminate the problem in no time, but a few are more complicated and will require patience or a trip to the vet. Once you’ve figured out which reason it is, though, you can start working on getting your cat back into the litter box and away from urinating elsewhere!
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